Note: This investigation is **a work in progress**. Check back soon for more updates!
"What the notoriously corrupt United States federal government is claiming is to have sent men to the moon in 1969, on the VERY FIRST attempt, even though right here on earth Mt. Everest and the South Pole took NUMEROUS tries before success, allegedly accomplishing this amazing feat with 50 YEAR older technology (a cell phone has ONE MILLION times more computing power than ALL of NASA did in 1969), yet 50 YEARS later NASA can now only send astronauts ONE - THOUSANDTH the distance to the moon, even with 5 DECADES more advancements in rockets and computers.
"If Toyota claimed they made a car 50 YEARS ago that could travel 50,000 miles on one gallon of gasoline, yet today their best car can only go 50 miles per gallon, or ONE - THOUSANDTH the distance, would not the forgery of the previous claim be incredibly obvious? If it were not for people's pride and emotional attachment to the 50 YEAR OLD unrepeatable moon landing claim, also with only ONE - THOUSANDTH the distance capable 5 DECADES later, they would otherwise easily recognize this equally preposterous claim as the fraud that it sadly is.
"The alleged moon landings are the only technological claim in the entire history of the world, such as the first automobile, airplane, or nuclear power, which was not far surpassed in capability 50 YEARS later, much less not even able to be duplicated by any nation on earth 50 YEARS later. The supposed moon landings are also the only time in history that such claimed expensive technology was deliberately destroyed afterwards (175 BILLION DOLLARS worth), only done so to hide the evidence of the fraud.
"Seeing how it is IMPOSSIBLE for technology to go BACKWARDS and today NASA can only send astronauts ONE - THOUSANDTH the distance to the moon as was claimed 50 YEARS ago on the VERY FIRST attempt with 5 DECADES OLDER technology, the only remaining conclusion is that the 1969 claim was a federal government lie. It is that simple and that corrupt.
"Award winning filmmaker Bart Sibrel (Sibrel.com) presents his highly acclaimed controversial documentary "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon" which debuts newly discovered behind-the-scenes out-takes from the supposed first mission to the moon showing the crew staging the photography of being "halfway to the moon", conclusively proving that they never left earth orbit, as is still NASA's limit today 50 YEARS later.
"The CIA is even heard on a private, third audio channel, prompting the crew to respond to Mission Control only after four seconds have elapsed, in order to create the false impression of an increased radio delay, so as to appear farther from the earth than they really were. In Sibrel's second film "Astronauts Gone Wild" a microphone accidentally records an astronaut privately discussing telephoning the CIA to have investigative journalist Bart Sibrel assassinated, something that would not be necessary if Sibrel's discovery of the fraud was not true.
"Sibrel has been interviewed, and his documentary about the moon landings have been featured on, The Tonight Show, The Daily Show, Geraldo at Large, The Abrams Report, Coast to Coast, NBC, CNN, FOX, HBO, Time Magazine, the New York Times, the L.A. Times, the Washington Post, and USA Today.
"All Truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed, Then it is violently opposed, Finally it is accepted as self-evident. -Arthur Schopenhauer-
"In an age of universal deceit, telling the Truth is a revolutionary act. Whoever controls the past, controls the future. -George Orwell-
"One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we’ve been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We’re no longer interested in finding out the Truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It’s simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we’ve been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back. -Carl Sagan-
"It is easier to fool people, than to convince them that they have been fooled. -Mark Twain-
The Invisible Ships of NASA
By Geri Roberts
I height don Quixote, I live on peyote, marijuana, morphine and cocaine. I never know sadness, but only a madness that burns at the heart and the brain. I see each charwoman, ecstatic, inhuman, angelic, demonic, divine. Each wagon a dragon, each beer mug a flagon that brims with ambrosial wine.
On July 20, 1969 my family gathered with our neighbors in front of the TV to watch the first man land on the moon. The picture was fuzzy and the figure shadowy but it didn't matter. We were all silent with awe. When Armstrong's foot touched the moon's surface and he intoned those memorable words, everybody sighed with relief. I remember being totally enthralled. There were tears in my eyes as I thought of the wonderful things to come: Colonies on the moon and then people would travel to Mars and the rest of the solar system. I loved science fiction like Star Trek and I firmly believed it was all going to come true.
Then I thought of something. "How did they get a camera up there? How can we be watching this?" I asked.
My father said that they had mounted a camera on the lander aimed at the ladder that Armstrong climbed down.
My father had attended a one room school house and never graduated from high school. But he was nobody's fool. He was a licensed electrician who ran his own business during the Great Depression and supported all of his family and my mother's family. During the war he had been a flight mechanic on a bomber in the Pacific and he worked for years in instrumentation engineering at an oil refinery. But he never stopped to think about the explanation he gave me. He believed it totally. So did I. And so did EVERYBODY.
Looking back over the years, I want to both laugh and cry over how the hell intelligent humans could have believed so fervently that the Apollo astronauts actually went to the moon. And still believe it even when the very idea is exposed as ridiculous. They even become angry.
But you didn't have to be a scientist for your own God-given common sense to tell you the whole thing was physically impossible. From the tinfoil tiny space ship without bathrooms or insulation to the Playtex girdle material space suits and lethal radiation everywhere that would have fried the astronauts along with their cameras and film. The list of absurdities went on and on. What had happened to our minds?
I finally accepted the reality of the moon landings, or rather, the unreality, about four years ago. It was very painful. I laid on my bed in a deep blue funk for a whole day. clutching the book Dark Moon: NASA and the Whistler-Blowers. How could this massive trickery have been played on everyone? As I read, I found myself picking the lies out from where they had embedded themselves in my mind like fat ticks. It was as if I had been under a spell...
That was it! It went against everything I had been taught about both science and religion and was utterly irrational, but I knew that some sort of magic spell had been cast over all of us. You could call it mind control, but that simple term lacks the dark grandeur of the word "Magic." .
My concept of magic was changed by that revelation.. Children are told that magic doesn't exist and then they turn into adults who can be controlled by it because they won't believe in it even when it does bad things to them. Whoever or whatever is running Planet Earth believes in magic and is using it to control us. And it is Black Magick because magic used on a person without their knowledge or consent is malevolent magick.. Period.
I began to learn about magick. It's not hard. Information is all over the place, as if the Nefarious Elite are proud of it. They probably are. In fact, they WANT us to know about it. Why is that? Because we cannot underestimate our amusement value to these people, or whatever they are. They enjoy rubbing our faces in the unspeakable things they do with our hard earned tax dollars.
We cannot escape the fact that NASA was created by second rate Nazi scientists (the Russians grabbed the first rate ones) and Black Magicians, the most infamous of which was a man named Jack Parsons.. People associated with NASA describe him as a genius even as they play down the sex magic rituals, beastiality, pedophilia, incest and all the other loathsome practices of the Aleister Crowley founded Ordo Templi Orientis of which Parsons was an enthusiastic and contributing member. The FBI later called all this a "love-cult". Because of his membership in the Agape Lodge in California, Parsons was officially expelled from the scientific companies Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Aerojet which he had founded but, strangely, he is still regarded with awe and affection by them..
Parson's best buddy was a conman/Naval Intelligence officer/science fiction writer named L. Ron Hubbard. The two of them conducted magical workings and summonings in 1947 and many people seriously believe they conjured up some kind of evil spirit. This is very possible because the CIA was born in that year. All these frantic rituals and calling to spirits may remind you of the antics of John Dee and HIS pet conman Edward Kelley back in 1582 who kicked off the British Empire that is still making the world miserable.
Parsons was such a genius that Hubbard managed to run off with his wife, his yacht and his money. And it took a while for this rocket scientist to figure that out..
This brilliant scientist actually had a laboratory in his home in Pasadena where he would play with dangerous explosives. Parsons won the 1952 Darwin Award for removing himself from the gene pool when he blew himself up with a batch of fulminate of mercury. But, to be fair, it was very possible he was murdered. Especially since his mother was probably "suicided" soon after.
This is the genesis of NASA. So why do we trust anything they say? We simply hand over billions of dollars and exclaim over the puppet shows they perform for us..
And why do we find it difficult to believe they have murdered people? In 1967 Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee were burned to death under very suspicious circumstances during a pre-launch test; circumstances so suspicious that even Grissom's family claim he was murdered after he began to draw the public's attention to serious problems with the space craft.
Grissom was a decorated war veteran and test pilot with degrees in mechanical engineering and aeromechanics. But after his death he was portrayed in the 1983 movie The Right Stuff as an ignorant clown who lost his spacecraft after he panicked during a splash down. The movie even made fun of his wife. We never thought to ask why the character of a dead man was so thoroughly and unfairly trashed. More Black Magic, and we just sat there in the theater and laughed.
A man named Thomas Baron was a quality control inspector for North American Aviation, the company responsible for the construction of the Apollo spacecraft. In 1967, six days after he made a report critical of NASA's safety precautions, and was preparing a more intensive report, he and his family were killed when a train hit their car. Just a coincidence.
The Black Magicians of this world only have power over us because we give it to them. Yet I honestly cannot blame anyone for wanting to keep their eyes shut to what the Apollo program really was or what really happened in Dallas in 1963 and in New York and the Pentagon on 9/11. I'd love to go back to being a 15-year-old who believed in Mr. Spock and Captain Kirk and the coming of the Space Brothers. But I can't.
I do believe that each and every human has to open his own eyes and learn to see through the illusion into what this place really is. Until we do that, in this lifetime or another, we are trapped here without even knowing we're trapped.
There is something called the Myth of the Invisible Ships. It says that when indigenous peoples in the Americas first saw a sailing ship of the Conquistadores, they literally could not see it. It was so out of their world view, their normal every day vibrational frequency, that it was invisible to them until their shaman performed a ritual that allowed them to see. This story might be "just" a myth, but myths contain enormous truth. Maybe that enormous truth is that we perceive only a fraction of the frequencies surrounding us and until we are able to expand our perception we are at the mercy of anyone who knows how to manipulate those frequencies, and us..
It has been established beyond all reasonable doubt that the Moon is not what it appears; that it is not just another satellite orbiting a planet, Earth, but an entity which has thrown the minds of some of the greatest thinkers and scientific brains into a quandary and bewilderment unprecedented in the history of astronomy. Why haven't you heard about this? Another government cover-up? How could Moon mysteries have anything to do with government secrecy, and moreover could it relate to the suppression of the space programme?
Let us outline some of the extraordinary anomalies and mysteries surrounding this puzzle. Clearly not all data will be equally reliable but the abundance of interrelated information nevertheless gives an overall picture which can be determined with some certainty.
The first academic enigma must surely be that the Moon is apparently in its wrong orbit for its size.
However, this would presumably be based on its assumed density. Technical reports claim a density of 3.3 for the Moon compared with 5.5 for Earth. Astronomy data indicates that the internal regions of the Moon are less dense than the outer, giving rise to the inevitable but outrageous speculation that it could be hollow. The eminent and late scientist Carl Sagan, a typical sceptic, had made the statement, "A natural satellite cannot be a hollow object." But meaning here that if it is hollow, it is not a natural satellite -- and therefore artificial.
Here's 33 things that need to be answered!
*1) * Sceptics argue that the lack of stars on Moon photographs is acceptable, despite zero atmosphere to obscure the view. Yuri Gagarin, pronounced the stars to be "astonishingly brilliant". See the official NASA pictures above that I have reproduced that show 'stars' in the sky, as viewed from the lunar surface. And why exactly do you think there are hardly any stars visible on Apollo films taken from the Moon? The answers simple - Professional astronomers would quickly calculate that the configuration and distances of star formations were incorrect and so NASA had to remove them to make sure they could keep up the scam.
- The pure oxygen atmosphere in the module would have melted the Hasselblad's camera covering and produced poisonous gases. Why weren't the astronauts affected?
3) There should have been a substantial crater blasted out under the LM's 10,000 pound thrust rocket. Sceptics would have you believe that the engines only had the power to blow the dust from underneath the LM as it landed. If this is true, how did Armstrong create that famous boot print if all the dust had been blown away?
4) Sceptics claim that you cannot produce a flame in a vacuum because of the lack of oxygen. So how come I have footage on this page showing a flame coming from the exhaust of an Apollo lander? (Obviously the sceptics are wrong or the footage shows the lander working in an atmosphere)
5) Footprints are the result of weight displacing air or moisture from between particles of dirt, dust, or sand. The astronauts left distinct footprints all over the place.
*6) * The Apollo 11 TV pictures were lousy, yet the broadcast quality magically became fine on the five subsequent missions.
*7) * Why in most Apollo photos, is there a clear line of definition between the rough foreground and the smooth background?
*8) * Why did so many NASA Moonscape photos have non parallel shadows? sceptics will tell you because there is two sources of light on the Moon
- the Sun and the Earth... That maybe the case, but the shadows would still fall in the same direction, not two or three different angles and Earth shine would have no effect during the bright lunar day (the time at which the Apollo was on the Moon).
9) Why did one of the stage prop rocks have a capital "C" on it and a 'C' on the ground in front of it?
*10) * How did the fibreglass whip antenna on the Gemini 6A capsule survive the tremendous heat of atmospheric re-entry?
*11) * In Ron Howard's 1995 science fiction movie, Apollo 13, the astronauts lose electrical power and begin worrying about freezing to death. In reality, of course, the relentless bombardment of the Sun's rays would rapidly have overheated the vehicle to lethal temperatures with no atmosphere into which to dump the heat build up.
*12) * Who would dare risk using the LM on the Moon when a simulated Moon landing was never tested?
13) Instead of being able to jump at least ten feet high in "one sixth" gravity, the highest jump was about nineteen inches.
*14) * Even though slow motion photography was able to give a fairly convincing appearance of very low gravity, it could not disguise the fact that the astronauts travelled no further between steps than they would have on Earth.
*15) * If the Rover buggy had actually been moving in one-sixth gravity, then it would have required a twenty foot width in order not to have flipped over on nearly every turn. The Rover had the same width as ordinary small cars.
*16) * An astrophysicist who has worked for NASA writes that it takes two meters of shielding to protect against medium solar flares and that heavy ones give out tens of thousands of rem in a few hours. Russian scientists calculated in 1959 that astronauts needed a shield of 4 feet of lead to protect them on the Moons surface. Why didn't the astronauts on Apollo 14 and 16 die after exposure to this immense amount of radiation? And why are NASA only starting a project now to test the lunar radiation levels and what their effects would be on the human body if they have sent 12 men there already?
*17) * The fabric space suits had a crotch to shoulder zipper. There should have been fast leakage of air since even a pinhole deflates a tyre in short order.
18) The astronauts in these "pressurized" suits were easily able to bend their fingers, wrists, elbows, and knees at 5.2 p.s.i. and yet a boxer's 4 p.s.i. speed bag is virtually unbendable. The guys would have looked like balloon men if the suits had actually been pressurized.
*19) * How did the astronauts leave the LEM? In the documentary 'Paper Moon' The host measures a replica of the LEM at The Space Centre in Houston, what he finds is that the 'official' measurements released by NASA are bogus and that the astronauts could not have got out of the LEM.
*20) * The water sourced air conditioner backpacks should have produced frequent explosive vapour discharges. They never did.
*21) * During the Apollo 14 flag setup ceremony, the flag would not stop fluttering.
*22) * With more than a two second signal transmission round trip, how did a camera pan upward to track the departure of the Apollo 16 LEM? Gus Grissom, before he got burned alive in the Apollo I disaster A few minutes before he was burned to death in the Apollo I tragedy, Gus Grissom said, /'Hey, you guys in the control center, get with it. You expect me to go to the moon and you can't even maintain telephonic communications over three miles.'/ This statement says a lot about what Grissom thought about NASA's progress in the great space race.
23) Why did NASA's administrator resign just days before the first Apollo mission?
*24) * NASA launched the TETR-A satellite just months before the first lunar mission. The proclaimed purpose was to simulate transmissions coming from the moon so that the Houston ground crews (all those employees sitting behind computer screens at Mission Control) could "rehearse" the first moon landing. In other words, though NASA claimed that the satellite crashed shortly before the first lunar mission (a misinformation lie), its real purpose was to relay voice, fuel consumption, altitude, and telemetry data as if the transmissions were coming from an Apollo spacecraft as it neared the moon. Very few NASA employees knew the truth because they believed that the computer and television data they were receiving was the genuine article. Merely a hundred or so knew what was really going on; not tens of thousands as it might first appear.
25) In 1998, the Space Shuttle flew to one of its highest altitudes ever, three hundred and fifty miles, hundreds of miles below merely the beginning of the Van Allen Radiation Belts. Inside of their shielding, superior to that which the Apollo astronauts possessed, the shuttle astronauts reported being able to "see" the radiation with their eyes closed penetrating their shielding as well as the retinas of their closed eyes. For a dental x-ray on Earth which lasts 1/100th of a second we wear a 1/4 inch lead vest. Imagine what it would be like to endure several hours of radiation that you can see with your eyes closed from hundreds of miles away with 1/8 of an inch of aluminium shielding!
26) The Apollo 1 fire of January 27, 1967, killed what would have been the first crew to walk on the Moon just days after the commander, Gus Grissom, held an unapproved press conference complaining that they were at least ten years, not two, from reaching the Moon. The dead man's own son, who is a seasoned pilot himself, has in his possession forensic evidence personally retrieved from the charred spacecraft (that the government has tried to destroy on two or more occasions). Gus Grissom was obviously trying to make a big statement as he placed a lemon in the window of the Apollo I spacecraft as it sat ready for launch!
*27) * CNN issued the following report, "The radiation belts surrounding Earth may be more dangerous for astronauts than previously believed (like when they supposedly went through them thirty years ago to reach the Moon.) The phenomenon known as the 'Van Allen Belts' can spawn (newly discovered) 'Killer Electrons' that can dramatically affect the astronauts' health."
*28) * In 1969 computer chips had not been invented. The maximum computer memory was 256k, and this was housed in a large air conditioned building. In 2002 a top of the range computer requires at least 64 Mb of memory to run a simulated Moon landing, and that does not include the memory required to take off again once landed. The alleged computer on board Apollo 11 had 32k of memory. That's the equivalent of a simple calculator.
*29) * If debris from the Apollo missions was left on the Moon, then it would be visible today through a powerful telescope, however no such debris can be seen. The Clementine probe that recently mapped the Moons surface failed to show any Apollo artefacts left by Man during the missions. Where did the Moon Buggy and base of the LM go?
- 30)* In the year 2005 NASA does not have the technology to land any man, or woman on the Moon, and return them safely to Earth.
31) Film evidence has recently been uncovered of a mis-labelled, unedited, behind-the-scenes video film, showing the crew of Apollo 11 staging part of their photography. The film evidence is shown in the video "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon!". and appears above in the 'Why Did Apollo 11 Astronauts Lie About Being In Deep Space?' section.
*32) *Why did the blueprints and plans for the Lunar Module and Moon Buggy get destroyed if this was one of History's greatest accomplishments?
33) Why did NASA need to airbrush out anomalies from lunar footage of the Moon if they have nothing to hide? The Apollo mission was meticulously planned, yet there were still flaws in the plan which the public is being made aware of as time goes on. Unlike a simple game of bingo where nothing is planned and no strategy is involved the Apollo mission was thought out and at the time there seemed to be an answer to every question that arose. As times change and more research is being done on the mission the tables are beginning to turn and the public is starting to see the truth.
http://SaturnianCosmology.Org/ For complete access to all the files of this collection see http://SaturnianCosmology.org/search.php
Current Theories of the Moons Origin
There are currently three theories of the origin of the moon:
The Moon originated at the same time as the Earth, being formed substantially from the same material, aggregating and solidifying.
The Moon was formed not in the vicinity of the Earth, but in a different part of the solar system, and was later captured by the Earth.
The Moon was originally a portion of the terrestrial crust and was torn out, leaving behind the bed of the Pacific.
Origin versus Acquisition
The above hypotheses really concern the problem of how the Moon came to be in its current orbit around the Earth. This is not the same as the actual origin of the Moon. As suggested in Firmament and Chaos, ( ), terrestrial bodies did not accrete from cold particles of refractory materials in the inner solar system as currently believed. I maintain that all terrestrial-type bodies, including the Moon, originated as a result of highly energetic impacts on the giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus or Neptune, which comprised the original solar system. They are made up of clathrates or gas hydrates which encapsulate all the elements in the periodic table. The terrestrial bodies, including the Moon, condensed rapidly from a cloud of hot plasma that rebounded from the impacts. That is why the outer layer of the Moon comprises anorthosite, the least dense mafic rock that would have come to the surface of the very hot proto-Moon, via a process called plagioclase flotation. The process is explained in great detail in the section on Venus on this website, since its birth 6000 years ago is clearly described in ancient myth. Only three terrestrial planets have formed in this way, priori-Mars, Earth, and Venus, in the order of their creation. Mercury is the former solid core of priori-Mars, which separated some 2,700 years ago and Mars is its collapsed outer shell.
Since the Moon is considerably less massive than these planets, it may have resulted from a less energetic impact or formed at the same time as one of the terrestrial planets. One possibility is that it formed as a result of the same impact on Saturn which formed its rings and satellites. Saturn's rings cannot be extremely ancient, because such structures would eventually dissipate, as have the rings of the other giant planets. Rings form as a result of every high energy impact, as evidenced by the fact that all four giant planets still have rings. They formed from material which was ejected inside the Roche limit of the giant planet, and was not able to accrete into a sizeable satellite. At some future date the origins of all the terrestrial bodies may be determined by comparing their complete chemical composition with those of the four giant planets.
The Moons Age Unknown
In spite of the `lunar rocks' that were picked up and returned by the Apollo astronauts and the unmanned Soviet Luna vehicles, the age of the Moon is unknown. The regolith that covers the near side to a depth of some two kilometers, was ejected as vast clouds of rock and dust, from priori-Mars during the Vedic period (6000 to 2700 years BP). Thus, although there may be some true lunar rocks among the samples returned, we do not know which ones they are. The only way to determine the true age of the Moon will be for astronauts to land on the far side, which is free of the regolith covering, and chip off true bedrock.
The Acquisition of the Moon
The three theories above are based on the notion that the Moon has been in orbit around the Earth for billions of years. This assumption is without basis if the Moon was captured. The Egyptian mythical name for the Moon, Isis, means ancient, implying some knowledge of the date of its acquisition, within their cultural memory.
Immanuel Velikovsky published an article specifically on the Moon, considering particularly its acquisition age. He cites references to eight sages whose writings implied that the Moon was captured by the Earth in proto-historical times, within the `memory' of the most ancient cultures. He lists references to the writings of Aristotle, Apollonius of Rhodes, Plutarch, Ovid, Hippolytus, Lucian and Censorinus. See
The period when the Earth was Moonless is probably the most remote recollection of mankind. Democritus and Anaxagoras taught that there was a time when the Earth was without the Moon ... Arcadia in Greece, before being inhabited by the Hellenes, had a population of Pelasgians, and that these aborigines occupied the land already before there was a moon in the sky above the Earth; for this reason they were called Proselenes.
Some allusions to the time before there was a Moon may be found also in the Scriptures. In Job 25:5 the grandeur of the Lord who "Makes peace in the heights" is praised and the time is mentioned "before [there was] a moon and it did not shine." Also in Psalm 72:5 it is said: "Thou wast feared since [the time of] the sun and before [the time of] the moon, a generation of generations." A "generation of generations" means a very long time.
The memory of a world without a moon lives in oral tradition among the Indians. The Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Cordilleras of Colombia relate some of their tribal reminiscences to the time before there was a moon. "In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens," say the tribesmen of Chibchas.
Since mankind on both sides of the Atlantic preserved the memory of a time when the Earth was without the Moon, the first hypothesis, namely, of the Moon originating simultaneously with the Earth and in its vicinity, is to be excluded, leaving the other two hypotheses to compete between themselves. We have seen that the traditions of diverse peoples offer corroborative testimony to the effect that in a very early age, but still in the memory of mankind, no moon accompanied the Earth. Since human beings already peopled the Earth, it is improbable that the Moon sprang from it: there must have existed a solid lithosphere, not a liquid earth. Thus while I do not claim to know the origin of the Moon, I find it more probable that the Moon was captured by the Earth. Such an event would have occurred as a catastrophe. If the Moon's formation took place away from the Earth, its composition may be quite different.
Since the time the Moon began to accompany the Earth, it underwent the influence of contacts with comets and planets that passed near the Earth in subsequent ages. The mass of the Moon being less than that of the Earth, the Moon must have suffered greater disturbances in cosmic contacts. During these contacts the Moon was not carried away: this is due to the fact that no body more powerful than the Earth came sufficiently close to the Moon to take it away from the Earth for good; but in the contacts that took place the Moon was removed repeatedly from one orbit to another.
The variations in the position of the Moon can be read in the variations in the length of the month. [Ancient calendars reveal that] The length of the month repeatedly changed in subsequent catastrophic events--and for this there exists a large amount of supporting evidence.
In Firmament and Chaos I accept Velikovsky's premise that the Moon was captured in orbit around the Earth within proto-historical times. This process was catastrophic, triggering global earthquakes, erupting volcanos and tidal flooding across entire continents. Astrodynamicists claim that such a capture has to involve a third body, in order to conserve kinetic energy and angular momentum, but this view is based on the assumption that the bodies are rigid and solid throughout. Later, the repeated capture and release of priori-Mars proposed in Firmament and Chaos did involve a third body, proto-Venus. But the reorienting of the spin axes of both planet's lithospheres during the encounters makes it clear that understanding the close interaction of two planet-sized bodies requires taking into account their internal structure. Indeed, seismic studies of the Earth confirm that the solid core and the lithosphere rotate independently. As two planet-sized bodies approach one another, any mass anomalies in their lithospheres, such as the Tibetan complex and the Tharsis Bulge, would cause their outer layers to experience torques, resulting in the reorienting of their spin axes relative to their solid cores. The energy absorbed by this frictional process and the accompanying reorienting of the total angular momentum may make possible the capture of a body the size of the Moon, without invoking a third body.
Professor Emilio Spedicato, of The Universiti Degli Studii Bergamo, in keeping with current astro-dynamics theory, suggests that the Moon could have been captured from a rogue planet (dare I call it planet-X ?), which passed close to the Earth. Moreover, this may have been the same body which impacted Jupiter 5000 years later, resulting in the birth of proto-Venus. Possible evidence for the return of the rogue planet to the vicinity of the Earth after the capture of the Moon and before its impact on Jupiter may lie in the global anomaly which occurred at approximately 8,200 years BP. This can be seen in the Greenland ice core temperature data (below).
The Younger Dryas
Geophysical evidence, as well as ancient knowledge, point to the Younger Dryas as the date for the capture of the Moon. I maintain that it was captured into its current orbit at the end of this period, 11.6 cal kyr BP. The Younger Dryas was a short period, geologically speaking, which began at 13,000 years BP, some 1.5 millennia after the end of the last `Ice Age.' This 1300 year drop of 20 degrees F is well documented in the Greenland ice cores (below). It is notable for its rapid onset and an even more rapid conclusion, perhaps as short as a decade. The evidence for great trauma at this time is also available in Antarctic ice cores, ocean and lake sediments and continental flooding, indicating that the event was global in scope.
Ice Core and Other Data
The Greenland ice cores (GISP and GRIP) reveal much more than just the two rapid temperature changes, determined from 18O / 16O ratios, that delineated the Younger Dryas (YD). Mayewski points out prominent instances of increased dustiness, peaking every 500 years before, during and after the YD. He interprets a sudden rise in the atmospheric methane concentration at the end of the YD as proving the event affected low latitude wetlands, because these are thought to be the major source of natural methane. A similar rise in the methane concentration was also measured in the Taylor Dome Antarctic ice core, proving its global significance. An additional abrupt century-long cooling event about 8,200 years BP is also prominent in the Greenland Ice Cores. This was also associated with a rise in the atmospheric methane.
Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence, Hanson2, reports on the ages of colluvial aprons from the Laramie River and Sybille Creek in Wyoming, which are deposited on flood plains, arroyo bottoms and adjacent terraces, He found that these hillsides were denuded both at the transition into and out of the YD.
Overturning of the Earth's Lithosphere
The evidence is consistent with my hypothesis that the YD events were caused by the close approach to the Earth of a large body such as the Moon or planet-X. As suggested in Firmament, the two encounters that delineate the YD were actual overturnings of the lithosphere of the Earth, without a significant slowing of its rotation rate. These encounters caused enormous tidal floods, in which oceans were pulled from their basins and rushed across entire continents. This scenario provides a much more appealing source of the rapid rise in methane. I suggest that it was released from the methane clathrates beneath the sea beds when these waters were pulled from their beds. These can only exist under the high pressure created by the weight of the oceans. When the pressure was released, the clathrates nearest the surface broke down, releasing their stores of methane. The dust spikes noted by Mayewski at intervals of 500 years may have marked other not-so-close perigees of the Moon, each of which reduced its apogee as part of the capture process.
Caches of Buried Animal Bones
The scenario of tidal flooding is consistent with the ubiquitous devastation of fauna evidenced by buried caches of millions of broken animal bones found in completely different parts of the world, as reported by Velikovsky and De Grazia, with extinct and extant animals intermixed. These were slaughtered by great rocks tumbling ahead of the tidal waves as they crossed the continents and were collected in lowland eddies and immediately covered by silt, preventing their oxidation. Indeed, the oils from these animals may have seeped into the Earth until they became trapped by impermeable rock layers, forming the major source of petroleum available today. Many species became extinct at the date of the YD, including the Wooly Mammoth in Siberia and the Saber-Toothed Tiger in North America.
Climate Change after the Younger Dryas
But the ice cores record more than just the changes that occurred at
times of these traumatic events. They show the entire history of the
world climate before (the ice ages and the pre-boreal) and after (the
Holocene) these events. They reveal that the YD marks the onset of a
completely different climatic regime on the earth, called the Holocene
In other words this record actually shows the immediate climatic
effect of the stabilization of the Earth by the presence of the newly
captured Moon. Many geophysics, in keeping with their uniformitarian
paradigm, suggest that the current warm period is merely another
interstadial,' the name given to the warm period between the ice ages. They claim that ice ages' will continue to plague the Earth in
the future. I suggest that the stabilization of the Earth by the
capture of the Moon was the first of several steps leading to its
preparation for the growth and prospering of mankind. The scripture
quoted above by Velikovsky in Job 25:5, "the grandeur of the Lord who
`makes peace in the heights'" may indeed be a reference to the
stabilizing effect of the Moon on the Earth.
In spite of the evidence, scientists have no idea of the momentous
events that marked the beginning and end of the Younger Dryas. On both
occasions the lithosphere of the Earth was completely overturned, just
as it was later due to two close approaches of proto-Venus. For 1300
years the Sun rose in the west and set in the east. Corroboration of
the overturning of the Earth at the date of the Younger Dryas
transitions is found in the cultural memory of the Egyptians, related
to Solon the Greek around 475 B.C. They stated that their kingdom was
341 generations old. Assuming thirty-seven years per generation, their
cultural memory could have extended back to the time of the Younger
Dryas. Moreover, the priests also told him that in the entire memory
of their people, the Earth had overturned four times. Velikovsky cites
a number of other cultures which
remembered' four suns,
ages' or skys,' - each of which were terminated by catastrophic cosmic events.
The two later overturnings of the Earth were the result of close
passes of proto-Venus around 6,000 years BP. Figure 1 illustrates the
coincidences of their cultural beginnings with the dating of the
Evolution of the Moon's Orbit
The orbital parameters of the Moon established at the date of the YD transition to the Holocene, were not exactly the same as their current values. Due to the close passes of proto-Venus, 6000 years BP, the many (one hundred) prolonged encounters with priori-Mars and the lingering effect of proto-Venus during these encounters, its period has varied somewhat. The changes are reflected in the differing lengths of the month recorded in the calendars of many ancient cultures, from as long as thirty-six to as few as twenty-seven days.
Computer simulations reveal that the orbit of the Moon was `scalloped' when priori-Mars was captured in geosynchronous orbit at a center-to-center distance of 44,000 km. An orbit from one of these simulations is shown above.
The Moon's rotation (spin) period, which now is identical to its orbital period was probably different at the conclusion of the Younger Dryas because at that time its center of gravity was not offset. The rotation was probably brought into exact coincidence with its orbital period within the last 6,000 years due to the deposition of a two kilometer thick layer of regolith on the near side. Its spin-orbit synchronization is now ensured because the regolith has offset its center-of-gravity approximately some two kilometers from its geometrical center, in the direction of the Earth. This material was all ejected from priori-Mars during the dance encounters and fell onto the surface of the Moon in the last 6,000 years.
Most of the regolith is currently believed to be rock of lunar origin that has become pulverized by the influx of innumerable micrometeorites over the last 4.5 billion years. I maintain that all the regolith is from priori-Mars, blasted to the Moon in great clouds of rock and dust, in the last 6,000 years. This material was propelled by enormous convulsions in the interior, caused by priori-Mars' rapidly passing through alignments with the Earth, Moon and Sun. These dangerous eruptions killed many people on Earth and were the reason for the ancients great concern about predicting eclipses. Because innumerable particles fell to the Moon in vast storms, on top of similar particles already in place on the lunar surface, many do not exhibit the signs of shocking that would be expected for individual impacts. These small rock particles and dust falling on similar material already emplaced caused highly localized melting and the sticking together of tiny particles, forming the most common rock type found in the regolith, breccias.
The Origin of the Maria
The maria are currently thought to be lava flows from the interior of the Moon. There are several problems with this hypothesis. The most obvious one is that the `lava flows' are only present on the near side of the Moon, more specifically in basins formed by impacts on the near side. Another problem is that the calculated ages of the rocks in different maria are between three and eight hundred million years younger than the basin ejecta. This implies that for some reason the subsurface rock, deep in the interior, melted and flowed exclusively into the maria basins at different intervals of the order of hundreds of millions of years after the giant impacts that formed the basins. A third problem, that is rarely stated, is that the maria are not filled with lava. Quoting from Fred Hoyle (The Cosmogony of the Solar System).
" ... almost all lunar geologists are of the opinion that rock emerged long ago at the Moon's surface from melting processes that took place in the sub-surface layers ...
This picture would essentially have been proven if visits to the lunar maria had revealed the presence of extensive lava beds. But no astronaut has ever stood upon a lava bed. It is commonly stated that lava flows have been found on the Moon, but such statements are incorrect. Lava flows have been found only in the imagination of those who have examined distant photographs taken from [of?] the Apollo landing sites. What astronauts actually found was a great deal of fine powder. Embedded or lying on the powdery surface was a multitude of rock fragments. Subsequent chemical analyses of the rock fragments showed them to be of highly variable chemical composition, making it quite unlikely that they were fragments from a single coherent flow of molten rock. Rather they seem to be ejecta from impact events that occur over a wide areas of the Moon's surface.
I maintain that the maria formed when a series of large hot bodies were ejected, rapid fire, from the same volcanic vent on priori-Mars, as it orbited the Earth. This stream of glowing bodies had barely sufficient velocities to reach the Moons orbit and therefore impacted the lunar surface at less than escape velocity. Researchers from the Fermi Institute and the University of Chicago who have calculated the impact velocities for a dozen large impact basins conclude that they are very low, indeed, six of them fall below the escape velocity (2.4 kilometers per second) of the Moon. Although there are a number of assumptions in their method, they conclude that most of the basin forming impacts had systematically low impact velocities. The currently accepted theory cannot offer any explanation as to why there should be such low impact velocities.
These bodies were still hot when they impacted on the Moon. Their impacts were cushioned by the thick layer of regolith (dust and small rocks) already in place from millennia of earlier ejections from priori-Mars. The heat of their impacts was sufficient to allow the already softened bodies to break into small rocks which remained in the basins formed by the impacts. Thus the maria do not contain true lava flows, instead the differences of the rocks that made up the impacting bodies are preserved in the basins.
The currently accepted notion that the basin depths and the rupturing of rock beneath them allowed lava to flow up into them exclusively, hundreds of millions of years later, is negated by the simple fact that a number of smaller craters, due to the impact of secondaries, which broke away from the main maria impactors, also contain the dark maria material as shown above.
The maria basins exhibit strong gravitational anomalies - so large that they can produce considerable errors in orbital predictions. The fact that these deposits have not reached isostatic equilibrium is strong evidence against their being due to lava flows from the interior of the Moon. It implies that the lunar crust was already sufficiently cool and rigid enough to support the impacted masses. Some of the western maria also exhibit gamma ray spectra of Potassium, Rare Earth Elements, and Potassium, all of which are quite `foreign' to the Moon. These KREEP rock are too dense to have floated to the surface of the Moon when it was molten, and therefore must have been part of the impacting bodies.
An ancient Egyptian myth describes the formation of the maria. It tells that Set cut up the body of his enemy, the god Osiris, into fourteen pieces and spread them all around so that he could not be resurrected. But Osiris' faithful lover, Isis (the Moon) went around and searched until she found every one. At each place she found one she placed a monument. I maintain that Osiris was the enormous hardened lava figure at the north pole of priori-Mars that extended toward the Earth during its prolonged encounters with the Earth. It was the primary deity of every culture on Earth during the Vedic or Olympian period. (See the section on priori-Mars). When periodic convulsions shook the planet this massive body collapsed, as large hot bodies were ejected from the same volcanic vents from which it originated. This was interpreted as the death of Osiris, but the figure reformed after each collapse. On one such occasion a sequence of fourteen large hot bodies were shot in a stream from the same vent in rapid succession, which just had sufficient velocity to reach the orbit of the Moon, where they impacted one after another. Those bodies not only formed the maria, but, softened by their hot origin, each from deeper inside priori-mars than the previous one, they broke into myriads of small rocks and remained in the basins created by their impacts.
Is there any physical evidence of these impacts? Quoting from an article entitled "Lunar Cataclysm? ... ", by the only Apollo geologist astronaut, Harrison .H. (Jack) Schmitt, now at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, in which he cites all the events that would be necessary to define a single cataclysmic event on the Moon, item (f) reads:
Formation of 14 young large basins, >300 km in diameter, that are sharply circular, have many characteristic basin features clearly delineated, and have both positive and negative mass concentrations (mascons) associated with them. Measured and inferred ages for these events range from 3.92 (Nectaris) to 3.8 b.y. (Orientalis) .
Thus, close study of the lunar surface has identified the fourteen basins formed by the bodies in the Egyptian myth. The calculated ages and compositional differences of the rocks in these maria are due to the different depths within priori-Mars from which the rocks originated. The hotter ones, from greater depths, lost more of the argon gas used for age calculation, by diffusion, and thus appear younger. The age of their origin within priori-Mars forms an upper limit and can be determined from the same rocks exhibiting `fossil magnetism' found in the regolith. These were near surface rocks formed in the magnetic field of priori-Mars, which were not heated enough to lose their magnetism or their age determining elements.
The offset center of gravity, the regolith, the low velocity of maria impacts, the lack of true lava flows, the fossil magnetism of many rocks, the differing ages calculated for the maria, are naught but smoke and mirrors. This is the Trickster at work, who is preparing to show the folly of the scientists who say that science has replaced God.
Walt Whitman, the first great American writer once wrote:
Hurrah for positive science! Long live exact demonstration! ...
Gentlemen, to you the first honors always!
Your facts are useful, and yet they are not my dwelling,
I but enter by them to an area of my dwelling.
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